3. Libre de Vendedores

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El valor de un sistema abierto se basa en su capacidad: ser creado a partir de una variedad de productos de una variedad de vendedores, ser instalado por múltiples integradores, ser mantenido por proveedores de servicios competitivos y aprovechar el nivel más alto de integración de sistemas .

Mucha gente piensa que la interoperabilidad pertenece solamente a los dispositivos instalados; Sin embargo, hay más en un sistema abierto que sus dispositivos. Open abarca muchas capas del sistema. Los elementos físicos de un sistema abierto incluyen:

Dispositivos
Infraestructura
Herramientas
Interfaces de usuario
Conectividad empresarial

Un mal sistema abierto obliga a los usuarios a instalar productos desde una sola fuente. Si después quieren cambiar de proveedor, tendrán que reemplazar todo o parte del sistema por un sistema nuevo y competitivo. Esto agrega un costo significativo a la instalación y, a menudo, reduce su eficiencia y facilidad de mantenimiento, gracias al alto costo de los contratos de servicio bloqueados y la renuencia a reemplazar los sistemas propietarios más antiguos.

¿Cómo se puede cerrar o bloquear cada uno de estos elementos del sistema? Si un proveedor pone una barrera entre algo que ofrece y la capacidad de un competidor para interactuar con su oferta, el sistema se vuelve bloqueado o propietario. Un sistema abierto puede ser cerrado por cualquiera de estas ofertas:

Dispositivos
Los dispositivos del sistema tales como controladores, sensores y actuadores deben ser capaces de interoperar y ser reemplazados por productos competitivos. Si un producto tiene una funcionalidad única, no debe obligar a los usuarios a instalar otro componente que no esté competitivamente disponible. Algunos proveedores requieren que sus dispositivos se instalen junto con su puerta de enlace propietaria; Esto se bloquea en el sistema.

Infraestructura
Los sistemas típicos se basan en dispositivos en red que utilizan un protocolo común y un tipo de medio común (como alambre de par trenzado, línea de alimentación, cable de fibra óptica o radiofrecuencia). Para garantizar un sistema abierto, cada dispositivo conectado en red debe poder instalarse en un medio especificado comúnmente, y el protocolo que se ejecuta en los dispositivos debe ser fijo y estandarizado para el sistema. La infraestructura también incluye los enrutadores, interfaces de red para equipos y puentes a otras redes, como Ethernet. Todos estos deben especificarse basándose en estándares abiertos, no basados ​​en el producto específico de un proveedor. Sin una especificación cuidadosa, cualquiera de estos puede bloquear un sistema en un solo proveedor.

Herramientas
Las redes se instalan, configuran y se encargan utilizando herramientas de software que normalmente se ejecutan en una computadora. Algunos vendedores utilizan estas herramientas – algunas complejas, otras relativamente simples – para configurar sus dispositivos. Si las herramientas utilizadas en el sistema no pueden coexistir con la herramienta de otra persona, es probable que bloqueen al usuario hasta cierto punto. Los plug-ins de configuración de dispositivos se han desarrollado para resolver este problema. Estos módulos de configuración basados ​​en software pueden ser utilizados por cualquier herramienta de gestión de red estándar que siga las Pautas de Interoperabilidad de LonMark. Esto permite a los integradores configurar los dispositivos de los proveedores con una herramienta abierta; En lugar de obligar a los integradores a utilizar sólo la herramienta de ese proveedor en toda la red.

Interfaces de usuario
Las interfaces de usuario basadas en computadora vienen en dos categorías: herramientas basadas en Web y interfaces de usuario personalizadas. Las herramientas basadas en la Web se han vuelto cada vez más populares porque aprovechan el mismo nivel de apertura que ofrece Internet: Los usuarios inician un navegador Web desde cualquier computadora y, con acceso por contraseña, pueden interactuar con el sistema. Las interfaces de usuario permiten el control, la supervisión, la generación de informes, el alarmar, la programación y el diagnóstico. En algunos casos, los vendedores tratan de vender las extensas funciones de su interfaz de usuario, pero sólo permiten su interfaz de usuario en la red de control, bloqueando así el sistema. Un buen sistema abierto permitirá que múltiples herramientas de múltiples fabricantes coexistan simultáneamente en el mismo sistema de control en red. Los estándares existen para asegurar esto.

Conectividad empresarial
La conexión de un sistema de control a una red de TI proporciona visibilidad a través de un público mucho más amplio. El concepto LON-LAN-WAN garantiza que el sistema de control se convierta en un elemento de todas las fuentes de datos disponibles para la empresa. Los profesionales de TI están aprendiendo rápidamente que el sistema de control ofrece acceso a la información que los ejecutivos necesitan. Para proporcionar esta conectividad, se necesitan dispositivos de infraestructura de nivel empresarial; Y deben ser especificados como abiertos. Se han desarrollado interfaces abiertas para asegurar que las comunicaciones de datos entre el LON y LAN sean accesibles por cualquier proveedor. El estándar LONMARK IP-852 fue desarrollado por esta razón. Al especificar IP-852 para el enrutamiento LON-LAN, cualquier interfaz de usuario puede acceder a cualquier dispositivo en cualquier lugar de la red, sin gateways o controladores personalizados y sin necesidad de estar físicamente en la instalación. Además, han surgido otras normas para permitir que los ordenadores de back-office de TI accedan a la información de la red para permitir que un sistema de control comparta información con sistemas empresariales típicos que sean inteligentes.

[:en]An open system’s value is based upon its ability: to be created from a variety of products from a variety of vendors, to be installed by multiple integrators, to be maintained by competitive service providers, and to take advantage of the highest level of system integration.

Many people think interoperability pertains only to the installed devices; however, there’s more to an open system than its devices. Open encompasses many layers of the system. The physical elements of an open system include:

  • Devices
  • Infrastructure
  • Tools
  • Users interfaces
  • Enterprise connectivity

A bad open system forces users to install products from a single source. If they later want to change vendors, they’ll need to replace some or all of the system with a new, competitive system. This adds significant cost to the facility and often reduces its efficiency and maintainability, thanks to the high cost of locked-in service contracts and the reluctance to replace older, proprietary systems.

How can each of these system elements be closed or locked in? If a vendor puts a barrier between something they offer and the ability of a competitor to interface to their offering, the system becomes locked-in or proprietary. An open system can be closed by any one of these offerings:

 

  • Devices

System devices such as controllers, sensors, and actuators should be able to interoperate and to be replaced by competitive products. If a product has a unique functionality, it should not force users to install another component that’s not competitively available. Some vendors require their devices to be installed along with their proprietary gateway; this locks in the system.

  • Infrastructure

Typical systems are based on networked devices that use a common protocol and common media type (such as twisted pair wire, power line, fiber optic cable, or radio frequency). To ensure an open system, each networked device should be able to be installed on a common specified media, and the protocol running on the devices should be fixed and standardized for the system. The infrastructure also includes the routers, network interfaces to computers, and bridges to other networks, like Ethernet. All of these should be specified based upon open standards—not based upon one vendor’s specific product. Without careful specifying, any one of these can lock a system in to a single vendor.

  • Tools

Networks are installed, configured, and commissioned using software tools that typically run on a computer. Some vendors use these tools – some complex, others relatively simple – to configure their devices. If the tools used on the system cannot co-exist with anyone else’s tool, they’re likely locking-in the user to some degree. Device-configuration plug-ins were developed to solve this problem. These software-based configuration modules can be used by any standard, network management tool that follows the LonMark Interoperability Guidelines. This lets integrators configure vendors’ devices with an open tool; instead of forcing integrators to use only that vendor’s tool on the entire network.

  • User Interfaces

Computer-based user interfaces come in two categories: Web-based tools and custom user interfaces. Web-based tools have become increasingly popular because they leverage the same level of openness that the Internet provides: Users launch a Web browser from any computer and, with password access, can interface with the system. User interfaces allow for control, monitoring, reporting, alarming, scheduling, and diagnostics. In some cases, vendors try to sell the extensive features of their user interface but allow only their user interface on the control network—thereby locking in the system. A good open system will let multiple tools from multiple manufacturers co-exist simultaneously on the same networked control system. The standards exist to ensure this.

  • Enterprise Connectivity

Connecting a control system to an IT network provides visibility via a much wider audience. The LON-LAN-WAN concept ensures that the control system becomes an element of all of the data sources available to the enterprise. IT professionals are quickly learning that the control system offers access to information that executives need. To provide this connectivity, enterprise-level infrastructure devices are needed; and they must be specified as open. Open interfaces have been developed to ensure that data communications between the LON and LAN are accessible by any vendor. The LONMARK IP-852 standard was developed for this reason. By specifying IP-852 for LON-LAN routing, any user interface can access any device anywhere on the network—without custom gateways or drivers and without needing to be physically at the facility. Additionally, other standards have emerged to allow IT back-office computers to access information from the network to allow a control system to share information with typical enterprise systems that are Web Services-savvy.

 

To ensure an open system, be sure to specify that all five system elements are open. We highly recommend that each element is interoperable, and that training and servicing are also specified as open. This will help create as open a system as possible, yielding the best return on investment and the lowest lifecycle costs. Click here for more information on the LonMark Open Specification.[:pb]An open system’s value is based upon its ability: to be created from a variety of products from a variety of vendors, to be installed by multiple integrators, to be maintained by competitive service providers, and to take advantage of the highest level of system integration.

Many people think interoperability pertains only to the installed devices; however, there’s more to an open system than its devices. Open encompasses many layers of the system. The physical elements of an open system include:

  • Devices
  • Infrastructure
  • Tools
  • Users interfaces
  • Enterprise connectivity

A bad open system forces users to install products from a single source. If they later want to change vendors, they’ll need to replace some or all of the system with a new, competitive system. This adds significant cost to the facility and often reduces its efficiency and maintainability, thanks to the high cost of locked-in service contracts and the reluctance to replace older, proprietary systems.

How can each of these system elements be closed or locked in? If a vendor puts a barrier between something they offer and the ability of a competitor to interface to their offering, the system becomes locked-in or proprietary. An open system can be closed by any one of these offerings:

 

  • Devices

System devices such as controllers, sensors, and actuators should be able to interoperate and to be replaced by competitive products. If a product has a unique functionality, it should not force users to install another component that’s not competitively available. Some vendors require their devices to be installed along with their proprietary gateway; this locks in the system.

  • Infrastructure

Typical systems are based on networked devices that use a common protocol and common media type (such as twisted pair wire, power line, fiber optic cable, or radio frequency). To ensure an open system, each networked device should be able to be installed on a common specified media, and the protocol running on the devices should be fixed and standardized for the system. The infrastructure also includes the routers, network interfaces to computers, and bridges to other networks, like Ethernet. All of these should be specified based upon open standards—not based upon one vendor’s specific product. Without careful specifying, any one of these can lock a system in to a single vendor.

  • Tools

Networks are installed, configured, and commissioned using software tools that typically run on a computer. Some vendors use these tools – some complex, others relatively simple – to configure their devices. If the tools used on the system cannot co-exist with anyone else’s tool, they’re likely locking-in the user to some degree. Device-configuration plug-ins were developed to solve this problem. These software-based configuration modules can be used by any standard, network management tool that follows the LonMark Interoperability Guidelines. This lets integrators configure vendors’ devices with an open tool; instead of forcing integrators to use only that vendor’s tool on the entire network.

  • User Interfaces

Computer-based user interfaces come in two categories: Web-based tools and custom user interfaces. Web-based tools have become increasingly popular because they leverage the same level of openness that the Internet provides: Users launch a Web browser from any computer and, with password access, can interface with the system. User interfaces allow for control, monitoring, reporting, alarming, scheduling, and diagnostics. In some cases, vendors try to sell the extensive features of their user interface but allow only their user interface on the control network—thereby locking in the system. A good open system will let multiple tools from multiple manufacturers co-exist simultaneously on the same networked control system. The standards exist to ensure this.

  • Enterprise Connectivity

Connecting a control system to an IT network provides visibility via a much wider audience. The LON-LAN-WAN concept ensures that the control system becomes an element of all of the data sources available to the enterprise. IT professionals are quickly learning that the control system offers access to information that executives need. To provide this connectivity, enterprise-level infrastructure devices are needed; and they must be specified as open. Open interfaces have been developed to ensure that data communications between the LON and LAN are accessible by any vendor. The LONMARK IP-852 standard was developed for this reason. By specifying IP-852 for LON-LAN routing, any user interface can access any device anywhere on the network—without custom gateways or drivers and without needing to be physically at the facility. Additionally, other standards have emerged to allow IT back-office computers to access information from the network to allow a control system to share information with typical enterprise systems that are Web Services-savvy.

 

To ensure an open system, be sure to specify that all five system elements are open. We highly recommend that each element is interoperable, and that training and servicing are also specified as open. This will help create as open a system as possible, yielding the best return on investment and the lowest lifecycle costs. Click here for more information on the LonMark Open Specification.[:]